Scientists discover 3 new subatomic particles

Scientists working with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) near Geneva have discovered three particles that have never been seen before.

The European nuclear research center CERN, which built the LHC, recently announced the discovery.

The 27-kilometer LHC at CERN is the machine that found the Higgs boson particle. This particle, along with its associated energy field, is believed to have been important in the formation of the universe after the Big Bang 13.7 billion years ago.

CERN says the LHC works by smashing two bar together and with special equipment to record the results.

The two beams inside the LHC are made to collide or meet at four locations around a ring. Four particle detectors are located at these collision points. They are known as ATLAS, CMS, ALICE and LHCb.

ATLAS and CMS surround the entire collision point with an enclosed detector, according to the CERN website. The LHCb experiment uses subdetectors to study forward particles. These are particles that are thrown forward in one direction by the collision. The first partial detector is located near the collision point, the others follow every 20 meters.

The LHCb working group observed a new species of “pentaquarks” and the first pair of “tetraquarks”. The results, recently presented at CERN on July 5, add three members to the list of newcomers hadrons found at the LHC.

The research will help physicists better understand how cottage cheese connect or bind together to make something composed particles.

Quarks are particles that usually combine in groups of two and three to form hadrons like the protons and neutrons that make up atomically cores.

More rarely, however, they can also combine to form four-quark and five-quark particles. These are called tetraquarks and pentaquarks.

LHCb spokesman Chris Parkes described the new particles in a statement.

“Finding new types of tetraquarks and pentaquarks and measuring their properties will help theorists develop a unified model of exotic hadrons…” Exotic is a term that means unusual.

Parkes said the exact nature of these exotic particles is unknown. He added that the new discoveries will also help scientists better understand hadrons that have already been discovered.

Physicist Niels Tuning said in a statement that the more carefully we do the studies “the more types of exotic hadrons we find.”

Tuning added, “We are witnessing a discovery period similar to that of the 1950s…” During this time, new subatomic particles were discovered, leading to new ideas about subatomic physics.

I’m John Russell.

John Russell adapted this story from a Reuters report and information on the CERN website.

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words in this story

particles n. each of the very small parts of matter (like a molecule, atom, or electron)

beam – n. an invisible line of energy, particles, etc.; a line of light coming from a source (such as the sun or a spotlight)

Quark – n. (physics) one of several types of very small particles that make up matter

hadron – n. a composite subatomic particle of two or more quarks

composed – adj. consist of different parts or elements

proton – n. (physics) a very small particle of matter that is part of the nucleus of an atom and has a positive electrical charge

neutron -n. (Physics) a very small particle of matter that has no electrical charge and is part of the nucleus of all atoms except hydrogen atoms

core – n. (physics) the central part of an atom, made up of protons and neutrons; Plural – cores

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